Document Type

Research Report

Publication Date



The data in this report are drawn from multiple U.S. Census Bureau datasets: the 2020 Decennial Census, the 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, the 2015–2019 American Community Survey 5-year Estimates, and the 2015-2019 American Community Survey 5-Year Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS). Note that data from different datasets are not directly comparable. The dataset used for each table and chart is indicated.

Limited data was available from the 2020 Decennial Census at the time of publication.

Population data in this report may be for racial groups “alone” (one race only) or “alone or in combination” (one or more races), as indicated in the table or chart. Population numbers for Asian American subgroups may be “alone” (one Asian American subgroup only) or “alone or in combination” (one or more Asian American subgroups and/or races).

Socio-economic data in this report is for racial groups “alone” and Asian American subgroups “alone.”

The Census Bureau considers Hispanic or Latino origin to be an ethnicity; thus Hispanics and Latinos may be of any race. Racial data in this report includes Hispanics and Latinos unless otherwise noted.

The Census Bureau collects survey data from approximately 1% of households in Massachusetts each year for the American Community Survey. Thus, sample sizes for certain cohorts, geographies or variables may be small, resulting in large margins of error.



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