Date of Completion


Document Type

Open Access Capstone

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)

First Advisor

Robert Swartz

Second Advisor

John Murray

Third Advisor

Lawrence Blum


Since education/learning occurs before and after formal schooling, schools have no monopoly on it. In fact, education happens as people live and change and wherever there is intelligent action. Schools can benefit from wider intelligent action and can increase young people’s learning through co-operation with the changing world. Such changing speaks to action-involved learning and encourages a concept of a dynamic, interactive world. It contrasts to the Alexandrian and Platonic/Aristotelian concepts of a static, closed universe, where ideas are unchanged and fixed and where an external (authoritarian) authority pre-determines knowledge. The latter system puts the cart before the horse, by decreeing learning through order regardless of interest. An interactive, more democratic system engages one’s interests first, letting progress proceed by student initiative. The contrast between a prior/traditional education and action-involved community education is great. ACTION INVOLVED LEARNING. All life is education. Education requires participation. Public school should be primarily concerned with passing on the cultural community living and the improvement of the social order. A PRIORI/TRADITIONAL LEARNING. Education is gained only in formal institutions of learning. Education is adequately gained through studying about life. School systems should be primarily concerned with the improvement of heritage [...]

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