Over the last several decades, this country has experimented with economic development and social welfare strategies and programs molded by liberals and conservatives, and embodied in the policies and politics of both Republicans and Democrats at the national level. However, given the continuing social and economic crisis, and gaps between African Americans and whites, it seems the approaches of both liberals and conservatives have been inadequate. Due to the failure of current policy strategies, in terms of black living conditions, debate in the black community should move from disagreements between liberals and conservatives, or Democrats and Republicans, towards the question of what kinds of new or philosophical principles and mobilization should guide political, educational, and economic activism.
Jennings, James, "Beyond The Civil Rights Agenda for Blacks: Principles for the Pursuit of Economic and Community Development" (1994). William Monroe Trotter Institute Publications. 4.