Date of Award
Open Access Thesis
Master of Science (MS)
Herein, the advancement of microwave-assisted flow synthesis is reviewed and the green nitration of arenes is investigated. First, microwave-assisted flow systems are described, followed by their synthetic and environmental applications. Microwave-assisted flow synthesis has been applied successfully in organic, inorganic, material, and biochemical syntheses as well as environmental applications such as water desalination and the removal of volatile organic compounds from the atmosphere. In the second part of the Thesis, the methodological development of the first catalyst and solvent-free nitration of m-xylene using only nitric acid is detailed. This environmentally friendly reaction proceeds without the use of harsh Brønsted acids, metal salts, or complex catalysts. This procedure occurs at room temperature, without solvent, and in an open flask. Furthermore, the nitration occurs even with dilute concentrations of nitric acid. The optimized protocol affords 95% regioselectivity for ortho, para-nitration of m-xylene, and retains 90% regioselectivity at lower concentrations. This protocol has also been successful with a wider substrate scope with both activated and deactivated ring systems.
Mooney, Tara Renée, "Non-Traditional Methods for the Green Synthesis of Fine Chemicals" (2022). Graduate Masters Theses. 761.