Date of Award


Document Type

Campus Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Physics, Applied

First Advisor

Chandra Yelleswarapu

Second Advisor

Stephen Arnason

Third Advisor

Bala Sundaram


Oxygen is necessary for metabolism. It is carried from lungs to the rest of the body by hemoglobin in blood. As each hemoglobin molecule can carry a maximum of four oxygen molecules, oxygen saturation (sO2) is the measure of percentage of oxygen content in blood. For a normal person sO2 is 95% - 100%. Point-of-care testing of sO2 in blood is important in medicine. It enables doctors and caregivers for monitoring a wide variety of chronic illnesses. On the other hand, mapping of sO2 values by performing a raster scan across the region of interest in vivo is also essential in clinical and research settings, such as to evaluate the therapeutic effects of a treatment, monitoring healing of wounds, etc. Several non-invasive methods have been developed for this purpose. In this thesis, I measured the nonlinear absorption coefficient (beta) of blood samples using photoacoustic Z-scan technique. Results depict linear dependency between beta and blood oxygenation levels.


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