Date of Award


Document Type

Campus Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


School Psychology

First Advisor

Melissa Collier-Meek

Second Advisor

Narmene Hamsho

Third Advisor

Stacy Bender


Written expression is a complex and critical skill that many students in the U.S. struggle to master (National Center for Education Statistics, 2012). Meanwhile, the COVID pandemic has expedited the need to find feasible interventions that support students writing in a virtual landscape (The National Association of School Psychologists, 2020). Brief, mindful breathing exercises may be one viable option for promoting the cognitive and behavioral mechanisms that are executed during the writing process (Minkos et al., 2018; Cornell et al., 2019). As such, the present study provided three elementary-aged students with the a virtual, after-school opportunity to practice mindful breathing and writing and examined the impact of this practice on students' written expression and academic engagement behaviors, specifically. Two of the three students demonstrated improvements in writing quantity and quality, as well as academic engagement behaviors, when engaging in the mindful breathing exercise. Implications for future research on the integration of mindfulness and academic practices are discussed.


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