Date of Award


Document Type

Campus Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Rosanna F. DeMarco

Second Advisor

Priscilla K. Gazarian

Third Advisor

Gaurdia E. Banister


The Workplace Bullying Institute (WBI) defines workplace bullying (WPB) as the repeated mistreatment of a person(s) in the work environment by one or more perpetrator(s) that is detrimental to the health of the targeted individual(s). WPB is considered a universal phenomenon prevalent throughout the world and the United States across a variety of professionals and non-professionals with severe consequences to individuals, groups, and organizational morale. Thirty-five percent of all the known workforce in the United States, across all genders, races, and ethnicities are bullied at work. Racial/Ethnic minority female nurses, as a significant subset of nurses, may be bullied at a higher rate than Caucasian counterparts because according to WBI in 2017, racial/ethnic minorities in the general population are bullied at a higher rate. The experience of racial/ethnic minority nurses bullied at work is an area of research that needs further exploration because although the literature is replete with initiatives to encourage racial/ethnic minority nurses to join the nursing workforce, WPB stands in the way of creating a welcoming environment to those who have already experienced behaviors that make them feel mistreated to the detriment to their health and psychological safety. Female minority wellbeing in the workforce is especially understudied. This study used a constructivist grounded theory method to examine the experiences of self-reported bullying of female racial/ethnic minority nurses in the acute care/hospital workplace. It was found that organizational racism and discrimination foster an environment where WPB against minorities can flourish. The workplace culture and facility processes do not mitigate this. These mechanisms serve to maintain the status quo and allows those with both formal and informal power to maintain control. Minority female nurses who are subjected to bullying to conserve resources by becoming silent or leaving the position. The consequences of this disengagement by a vital portion of the workforce negatively affects the individuals, the organization, and society as a whole.


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