Date of Award


Document Type

Campus Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Sharon G. Horne

Second Advisor

Takuya Minami

Third Advisor

Heidi Levitt


The relationship between history of gender-based violence and gynecological symptoms among women in Kyrgyzstan was explored through two major research questions: 1) Is there a relationship between a history of experiencing gender-related violence and presence of gynecological symptoms in women in Kyrgyzstan? 2) Do levels of conformity to femininity, or hostile or benevolent sexism moderate the relationship between the history of violence and presence of gynecological symptoms among Kyrgyztani women? Non-pregnant women participants (N = 143) seeking services in gynecological clinics were recruited for the study. It was found that there is a positive relationship between experience of violence and number of gynecological symptoms reported by women in Kyrgyzstan. Also, that each type of violence studied (physical, sexual and emotional, as well as child sexual abuse) was related to the total number of symptoms reported by women. The number of gynecological health worries was found to correlate with experience of violence and to predict the number of symptoms. Level of femininity, hostile and benevolent sexism were not found to be moderators of the relationship between experience of violence and symptoms. However, the hostile sexism was found to be a unique positive predictor of number of symptoms reported.


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