Document Type

Research Report

Publication Date



older adults, economic security, elders of color, racial disparity


Demography, Population, and Ecology | Gerontology | Race and Ethnicity


New estimates based on the 2022 Elder IndexTM show that the risk of economic insecurity in later life is especially high for people of color. Comparing household incomes to the Elder Index, we calculate the percentage of independent older adults with incomes that fall short of what is required to support economic security. National averages suggest that among older people living alone, 43% who are White, 59% of those who are Asian, 61% of those who are Black, and 67% of those who are Latino have annual incomes below the Elder Index. The risk of economic insecurity is lower among couples than among singles but is still substantially higher for people of color. Economic insecurity is especially prevalent among single women of color. Our estimates suggest that 12 million U.S. adults aged 65 or older in one- and two-person households struggle to make ends meet, facing financial challenges in their efforts to age in place and in community.



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