Document Type

Research Report

Publication Date



elders, economic security, older adults, demography of aging populations, United States


Demography, Population, and Ecology | Economic Policy | Gerontology | Social Welfare


New estimates from the 2019 Elder IndexTM suggest that half of older adults living alone, and 23% of older adults living in two-elder households, lack the financial resources required to pay for basic needs. The Gerontology Institute compares the 2019 household incomes for adults age 65 and above living in one- and two-person households to the 2019 Elder Index for each state and Washington, DC to calculate Elder Economic Insecurity Rates (EEIRs), the percentage of independent older adults age 65 or older living in households with annual incomes that do not support economic security. The EEIRs allow state and local governments to better understand and benchmark how many and which older adults are at risk of financial instability.


For more information about the Elder Index, including county-level Elder Index values, values for homeowners, and values for older adults in poor or in excellent health, see and

Community Engaged/Serving

Part of the UMass Boston Community-Engaged Teaching, Research, and Service Series. //



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