Date of Completion


Document Type

Open Access Capstone

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)

First Advisor

Nina Greenwald


The ability to think fluidly with a variety of oppositional forms is essential to both critical and creative thinking. Loaded oppositions such as science vs. humanities, reason vs. emotion, male vs. female and good vs. evil become hindrances to thought when they are held too rigidly as dichotomies. Learning to work with the rich flow of oppositions involves patient exploration and an openness to the emergence of paradoxical truths rooted in the opposition. However, paradoxical thinking is not the only method for flexing fixed oppositions; there are many other types of "moves" that one can make when thinking creatively with oppositional forms. The theoretical goal of this project is to develop a rich framework for supporting creative oppositional thinking. The practical goal of this project is to channel the energy derived from the development of the theoretical framework toward enhancing the educational process resulting in applications ready to deploy in the real world. Thus, the project seeks to integrate methods for paradoxical and oppositional thinking, rich metaphors for personal development and themes from academic philosophy into the context of adult basic education. The focal outcomes of the project are a set of educational practices and a guide to help teachers employ these practices in their work.


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