This article advances a general theory of law and justice that would expand the Palermo Trafficking and Smuggling Protocols to a wider application in human rights jurisprudence. The aim of the research reported here is to close the gaps in member-state policy and scholarship that addresses prevention measures and protection mechanisms for forcibly displaced children seeking self-determination in states that have not ratified the UN Convention on Refugees and the UN Conventions on Statelessness. The research is based on the premise that a stateless nonrefugee status constructs an extremely vulnerable state for children during forced migration and when they are living in camps or detention centers. It focuses on the Rohingya and Lumad children in targeted regions of Southeast Asia in comparison with Roma children in Eastern Europe.

The study outcomes are structured to mitigate the exploitation of targeted vulnerable and highly vulnerable populations, regardless of nationality or citizenry. An innovative new model, the International Law’s Response to Major Incidents of Forced Displacement (IL-R2/MIFD), is offered as the descriptor to the components of decision making, structures of pleadings, and applicable international laws to circumvent particular scenarios of human trafficking, and multiple forms of exploitation occurring as a result of massive forced displacement situations across the globe.



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