Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Conflict Resolution

First Advisor

Karen Ross

Second Advisor

Panagiota Gounari

Third Advisor

Darren Kew


This paper aims to evaluate existing teaching approaches in middle school history classrooms that incorporate alternative history materials. Alternative history focuses on the question of what might have happened differently, or ‘what if?’ The study focuses on addressing the following question: How does the understanding of one event’s significance on the chain of historical occasions contribute to students’ engagement in discussing past and current conflicts, based on teachers’ points of view? Interviews with 10 education practitioners focused on exploring the ways students can learn to see history creatively while developing tolerance. Existing approaches are explored through the viewpoints of conflict education, peace education, and historical empathy.