Data reveal a growing number of Massachusetts workers who both earn low wages and live in low-income families. They face “double jeopardy”: As low-wage earners, they are least likely to receive employer-sponsored benefits, yet they are often ineligible for means-tested government anti-poverty programs.
Albelda, Randy and Carr, Michael, "Double Jeopardy: Low-wage and Low-income Workers in Massachusetts, 1980–2009" (2012). Economics Faculty Publication Series. 27.