Date of Award


Document Type

Campus Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Priscilla K. Gazarian

Second Advisor

Qian Song

Third Advisor

Ahmad E. Aboshaiqah


Background: For nurses, resilience is a critical attribute to survive job-related adversity and stressors, thrive personally and professionally, and preserve their health and well-being. Nurses’ resilience research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is limited. However, no study has examined the impact of job stress, peer/coworker support, and perceived organizational support on the resilience of the Saudi Critical Care Nurses (CCNs).

Purposes: This study examined the impact of job stress, peer/coworker support, and perceived organizational support on the resilience of the Saudi CCNs. Furthermore, this study explored the effect of peer/coworker support and perceived organizational support on the relationship between job stress and resilience of the Saudi CCNs.

Methods: A predictive correlational design guided by Neuman System Model was used. A convenience sample of 175 Saudi CCNs was recruited from the Saudi Ministry of Health Hospitals in Makkah region, KSA. The data were collected using self-reported cross-sectional questionnaires: Nursing Job Stress, Modified Brief Two-Way Social Support Scale, Survey of Perceived Organizational Support, and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical analysis.

Results: The Saudi CCNs’ resilience mean 69.76 (SD = 14.17). After adjusting for all factors, being older than 35 years (ß = 11.77, p =.04), having history of COVID-19 infection (ß = 5.73, p = .01), and higher level of peer/coworker support (ß = 5.73, p =.01) were predictors for higher level of nurses’ resilience. While, having a higher level of job stress (ß = -5.81, p = .01) was a predictor of lower nurses’ resilience. However, perceived organizational support was not associated with the Saudi CCNs’ resilience. Furthermore, the Saudi CCNs’ peer/coworker support (ß = 1.16, p = .78) and perceived organizational support (ß = - 4.12, p = .35) did not significantly moderate the negative impact of job stress on their resilience levels.

Conclusion: The current study revealed that the Saudi CCNs’ resilience level is low compared to other nurses’ resilience population studies. Nurses’ job stress negatively influences their resilience, while peer/coworker support positively impacts their resilience. Therefore, developing and implementing programs and policies to reduce the nurses’ job stress and nurturing and cultivating nurses’ peer/coworker support are essential steps to improve Saudi CCNs’ resilience.


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Available for download on Wednesday, August 30, 2023