This paper is intended to stimulate discussion on historical and evolving instructional design models in an educational era. After enriching the vision of what constitutes an instructional design, the paper explores the historical development and improvement of instructional design processes and models. The instructional design models of Dick and Carey, Morrison, Ross and Kemp, Posner and Rudnitsky, and Smith and Ragan are identified herein as being among the best known, most popular, and most widely applied instructional design models in the field of educational sciences. The philosophical underpinnings and the rationales for the arrangement of components in each instructional design model are considered with regard to similarities and differences. Also, the current discussion explores which instructional approach is appropriate for a particular model, and how much importance each model assigns to instructional objectives or other design considerations and components. The instructional design concepts embedded in these models have evolved to meet the demands of new educational and instructional contexts. Hence, this paper is aimed at comparing and contrasting these basic models so that readers can ponder the implications of applying a given model to meet specific curriculum and instructional development needs.


instructional design, Dick and Carey model, Kemp model, Posner course design, Smith and Ragan model



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