This past summer racial progress in the United States ran head first into the issue of "freedom of association" in the form of private clubs that prohibit membership to "other" folk, i.e., blacks and women. The specific issue in the case of the Shoal Creek Country Club of Alabama was the appropriateness of holding a Professional Golf Association (PGA) tournament at a club that did not accept blacks as members and was so bold as to say so to the press.
Reed, Wornie L.
"Sports Notes: Blacks and Private Golf Clubs,"
Trotter Review: Vol. 4
, Article 5.
Available at: http://scholarworks.umb.edu/trotter_review/vol4/iss3/5